Overview of Neurotoxicology

Lucio G. Costa1

1 Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Toxicology
Unit Number:  Unit 11.1
DOI:  10.1002/cptx.36
Online Posting Date:  November, 2017
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The nervous system has a central and primary function in the body, and its relevance and complexity make it a target for a large number of toxic substances. The most common forms of neurotoxicity are the death of neurons (neuronopathy), the degeneration of axons (axonopathy), damage to glial cells (e.g., myelinopathy), and interference with the axonal membrane or neurotransmission. Important neurotoxicants are found among pesticides, metals, solvents, natural substances, and industrial chemicals. Environmental chemicals may also contribute to the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Specific testing guidelines exist to assess potential neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity in particular, and novel alternative testing approaches are being developed. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: central nervous system; developmental neurotoxicity; microglia; neurobehavioral toxicity; neurotoxicity testing; neurotransmission; peripheral nervous system

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Unique Characteristics of the Nervous System
  • Types and Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity
  • Role of Neurotoxicants in Neurodevelopmental, Neuropsychiatric, and Neurodegenerative Disorders
  • Neurotoxicity Testing
  • Acknowledgements
  • Literature Cited
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Literature Cited

Literature Cited
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