Evaluation and Purchase of Confocal Microscopes: Numerous Factors to Consider

Robert M. Zucker1, Michael Chua2

1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Toxicology Assessment Division, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 2 Michael Hooker Microscopy Facility and Cell & Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Publication Name:  Current Protocols in Cytometry
Unit Number:  Unit 2.16
DOI:  10.1002/0471142956.cy0216s54
Online Posting Date:  October, 2010
GO TO THE FULL TEXT: PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Abstract

The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. Curr. Protoc. Cytom. 54:2.16.1‐2.16.12. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Keywords: confocal microscope; fluorescence; lasers; quality; assurance; spectral imaging; laser scanning

     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Confocal Microscope: Buying Factors
  • Major Factors to Evaluate
  • Specifications
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • Disclaimer
  • Literature Cited
  • Tables
     
 
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Materials

GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library

Figures

Videos

Literature Cited

Literature Cited
   Art, J. 1995. Photon detectors for confocal microscopy. In Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, second edition (J. Pawley, ed.) pp. 3‐195. Plenum Press, New York.
   Carter, D. 1999. Practical considerations for collecting confocal images. In Confocal Microscopy Methods and Protocols, Vol. 122 (S. Paddock, ed.) pp. 35‐57. Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.
   Centonze, V. and Pawley, J. 1995. Tutorial on practical confocal microscopy and use of the Confocal Test specimen. In Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, second edition (J. Pawley, ed.) pp. 559‐567. Plenum Press, New York.
   Centonze, V. and Pawley, J. 1998. Practical laser scanning confocal light microscopy: Obtaining optimum performance from your instrument. In Cell Biology, Vol. 3, second edition (J. Celis. Ed.) pp. 149‐169. Academic Press, New York.
   Cogswell, C.J. and Larkin, K.G. 1995. The specimen illumination path and its effect on image quality. In Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, second edition (J. Pawley, ed.) pp. 127‐137. Plenum Press, New York.
   Hibbs, A. 2004. Confocal Microscopy for Biologists. Kluwer/Plenum, New York.
   Lerner, J.L. and Zucker, R.M. 2004. Calibration and validation of spectroscopic imaging. Cytometry A 62:8‐34.
   Marjlof, L. and Forsgren, P.O. 1993. Accurate imaging in confocal microscopy. In Methods of Cell Biology (B. Matsumato, ed.) pp. 79‐95. Academic Press, San Diego.
   Matsumoto, B. 2002. Cell biological applications of Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego.
   Pawley, J. 2000. The 39 steps: A cautionary tale of quantitative 3‐D fluorescence microscopy. Biotechniques 28:884‐886.
   Pawley, J. 2006. Fundamental limits in confocal microscopy. In Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, second edition (J. Pawley, ed.) pp. 20‐42. Plenum Press, New York.
   Shapiro, H. 2003. Practical Flow Cytometry, Fourth edition. Wiley‐Liss, New York.
   Sheppard, C.J.R. and Shotton, D.M. 1997. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Bios Scientific Publishing, New York.
   Swedlow, J.R., Hu, K., Andrews, P.D., Roos, D.S., and Murray, J.M. 2002. Measuring tubulin content in Toxoplasma gondii: A comparison of laser‐scanning confocal and wide‐field fluorescence microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99:2014‐2019.
   Wallace, W., Schaefer, L.H., and Swedlow, J.R. 2001. A workingperson's guide to deconvolution in light microscopy. Biotechniques 31:1076‐1082.
   White, N.S., Errington, R.J., Fricker, M.D., and Wood, J.L. 1996. Aberration control in quantitative imaging of botanical specimens by multidimensional fluorescence microscopy. J. Microscopy 181:99‐116.
   Zucker, R.M. 2005. Evaluation of confocal microscopy system performance. In Cell Imaging Techniques (D. Taajets, ed.) pp. 77‐135. Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.
   Zucker, R.M. 2006a. Confocal slide based system: Performance. Cytometry A 69:659‐676.
   Zucker, R.M. 2006b. Confocal microscopy slide based systems: Instability. Cytometry A 69:677‐690.
   Zucker, R.M. and Price, O.T. 2001. Statistical evaluation of confocal microscopy images. Cytometry 44:295‐308.
   Zucker, R.M. and Lerner, J.L. 2005. Wavelength and alignment tests for confocal imaging systems. Microsc. Res. Technique 68:307‐319.
   Zucker, R.M., Rigby, P., Clements, I., Salmon, W, and Chua, P. 2007. Reliability of confocal spectral imaging systems: Use of multispectral beads. Cytometry A 71:174‐189.
GO TO THE FULL PROTOCOL:
PDF or HTML at Wiley Online Library