The epithelial cells of the thymus govern the differentiation of hematopoietic precursors into T cells, which are critical for acquired immunity.
Dysbiosis of host‐associated commensal microbiota is emerging as an important factor in risk and phenotype of immunologic, metabolic, and behavioral diseases.
Many forms of glomerulonephritis are mediated by autoimmunity. While autoantibodies are often pathogenic, cell‐mediated immunity plays an important role in a number of forms of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Proteasomes play an important role in cell homeostasis and in orchestrating the immune response by systematically degrading foreign proteins and misfolded or damaged host cell proteins.
Many bacteria can become naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA across their outer and inner membranes by a dedicated competence apparatus.
Acinetobacter baumannii has recently drawn great interest in the microbiology research community due to the increase in clinical antibiotic resistance of this organism, and persistence of this bacterial species in the hospital environment.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram‐negative nosocomial pathogen of clinical importance.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a human pathogen that establishes latency and undergoes periodic reactivation, resulting in chronic recurrent lytic infection.
As with all Herpesviruses, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has both a lytic replication phase and a latency‐reactivation cycle. During lytic replication, there is an ordered cascade of viral gene expression that leads to the synthesis of infectious viral progeny.
Purification of human IL‐1β is used in this unit as an example of the preparation of a soluble protein from E. coli.
Heterologous expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli often results in the formation of insoluble and inactive protein aggregates, commonly referred to as inclusion bodies. To obtain the native (i.e.
Multidimensional liquid chromatography of peptides produced by protease digestion of complex protein mixtures followed by tandem mass spectrometry can be coupled with automated database searching to identify large numbers of proteins in complex samples.
Deamidation of asparagines and glutamines occurs spontaneously in proteins and results in protein degradation.
Pulse‐chase analysis is a well‐established and highly adaptable tool for studying the life cycle of endogenous proteins, including their synthesis, folding, subunit assembly, intracellular transport, post‐translational processing, and degradation.
In this unit we introduce the derivation and genetic modification of mouse haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells. We detail how to produce haploid embryos and the subsequent ES derivation and cell culture.
This unit describes a cryopreservation procedure using an enzyme‐free dissociation method to harvest cells and preserve cells in albumin‐free chemically defined E8 medium for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs).
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS).
This unit describes a procedure for generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using the Laser‐Enabled Analysis and Processing (LEAP®) system, which combines high‐throughput cell imaging with laser‐mediated cell manipulation.
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of a wide variety of disease processes, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as progressive and normal aging processes.
Orthotopic liver transplantation remains the only curative treatment for many end‐stage liver diseases, yet the number of patients receiving liver transplants remains limited by the number of organs available for transplant. There is a need for alternative therapies for liver diseases.